Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a behavioral health intervention developed by William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick in the early 1990's. According to Miller and Rollnick, MI is "a client-centered, directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence." By client-centered, they mean that MI respects the values and concerns of the client. The client provides the goals and objetives of treatment. It is not, however, entirely client directed, as in Rogerian psychotherapy. The practitioner of MI takes the client's objectives and goals, and directs the session by increasing cognitive discrepancy, rolling with resistance, supporting self-efficacy, and communicating in such a way as to enhance the client's natural motivation to change their behavior. The therapist elicits the client's intrinsic motivation for change.
The MI therapist does this by facilitating the client's identification of the disadvantages of the status quo (their current problematic behavior), and eliciting statements about the advantages of changing behaviors. The MI therapist also facilitates self-efficacy in the client, and expressions of intention to make changes from the client.
Rollnick and Miller have chosen a peculiar name for this form of therapy. The word "motivation" needs no explanation, but why did they choose the word "interviewing"? They state that the word "interviewing" has "more of an egalitarian, sometimes even subordinate sense to the word." The root of the word suggests "looking at something together." This reflects their Rogerian bent. Miller and Rollnick view MI as "an evolution of the client-centered approach that Rogers developed." (Many therapist who have adopted this method prefer to call it Motivational Enhancement Therapy.)
Carl R. Rogers (1902-1987) developed Person-Centered Therapy in 1940, on the premise that a client's mental health will improve organically in the setting of a therapuetic relationship that is empathic, non-judgmental, and characterized by unconditional positive regard. Trust and caring are fundamental to Roger's therapy, who was raised in a strict Christian home. His theory of personhood is diametrically opposed to behaviorism, believing that each person has a creative power , a crucial force, and are not deterministically products of heredity and upbringing, that are conditioned to respond mechanistically to their environment. People are not animals only, but behave with purpose.
Miller and Rollnick build on Roger's humanistic model, only making one major correction. As stated above, MI is directive. The therapist respects the client's perspective and experiences, resisting the imposition of his/her own goals upon the client. The client remains autonomous. However, with MI the therapist is directive, consciously eliciting statements from the client that are congruent with the client's stated goals and objectives. The therapist draws out motivation from the client's own values. The MI therapist evokes discrepancy in the client, a gap between their current behavior and their stated goals.
Motivation Interviewing has proven itself to be very successful in the treatment of disorders, especially addictions. It is more effective with individuals than group treatment, and is especially effective in treating minorities.
Gary DeVine doesn't adopt the theories of the humanists or Miller and Rollnick. He doesn't believe in self-efficacy, complete autonomy, or the inherant goodness of the individual. Having said that, their method has proven itself to be useful. It does require some adaptations, however. First, the goals and objectives of the client, must be congruent with the Scriptures. Secondly, self-efficacy is replaced with Holy Spirit-efficacy. Faith is foundational to this practice. Overcoming besetting sin (addiction) is by grace alone, and a promise from God to all believers (Matt 18:19; 19:25-26; Luk 11:13; Joh 10:10; 14:14). This is more effective than self-efficacy.
Lastly, MI is one method among many, that works well with some clients with particular conditions. Each client is an individual and will require methods tailored uniquely to them. Gary utilizes Christian Psychology, and MI is one part of his approach to treatment.
Gary J DeVine provides behavioral health treatment to alleviate or eliminate symptoms of mental disorders according to standard clinical practice from a distinctively Christian orientation. He is trained in psychotherapy and continues to educate himself about best practices and utilizes those treatments that are considered best practice by the mental health community. He is committed to obeying all federal and state statutes and the Code of Ethics of the American Association of Christian Counselors. He will respect and protect your confidentiality and privacy according to federal HIPPA laws and Law Code 49.72 of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He is competent to deliver mental health services to consumers, and when he encounters a client with a disorder for which he is not trained or otherwise qualified to treat, he will refer that consumer to a qualified specialist. Gary is committed to the Hippocratic Oath: "Practice two things in my dealings with disorders: either help or do no harm to the client".
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